Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are innovative battery energy storage structures that store, maximize and store the absorption of renewable energy sources.
Their use is perfect for applications that require a fast response time and high power demand in the short or medium term, improving the reliability, availability and efficiency of the power supply.
As we know, most renewable energy sources are non-programmable or intermittent and located in locations inextricably linked to resources, which means that the resulting electricity generation cannot be coherently temporally or geographically aligned with demand.
An electrical system must always satisfy three fundamental conditions:
stability, which means maintenance of energy quality and rapid response to misalignments, flexibility in adapting supply to demand in the medium term and adequacy, which means always guaranteeing current and long-term electricity supply.
These conditions pose fundamental challenges regarding renewables: in simple terms, a solar plant cannot accurately predict the generation of its photovoltaic park in a precise time frame (as required by the EU electricity market model). Lacking its estimate, the generator would end up with a surplus or a deficit of electricity actually produced with respect to its forecast, whose correction (considering the balancing services) is increasingly onerous.
In areas such as the south of the EU, where solar energy is expected to grow exponentially, this is of particular concern, as excessive generation during the day can lead to significant reductions in production and even negative prices during the day. peak hours of photovoltaic production.
Until now, the unpredictable and unstable nature of renewable energies had been mainly managed by constant generation corrections typically made by varying the production levels of conventional heat generation units, such as gas plants. However, the progressive elimination of thermal generation will create a vacuum, which will have to be filled by next generation technologies that provide the current and new services required.
Fortunately, rapid progress in battery storage technology and the industrialization of its supply chain have largely answered the above problem, once considered the Achilles heel of the renewable electricity industry and a major barrier to transition. energy.
In less than 20 years the BESS cost has dropped by 97% [, presenting to the electricity sector a tool that can be used for:
1. match production to demand
2. minimize waste of renewable energy
3. avoid price spikes and optimize electricity costs
4. Improve power quality and reliability by providing instant voltage and frequency adjustment
5. optimize the use of the transmission system
In the hands of a renewable generator, the BESS can be used to:
a. reallocate the energy produced when it is most needed
b. reduce the amount of energy lost due to reductions and balancing charges due to intermittence
The EU has quickly recognized the value of BESS in several studies it has undertaken and has recently revised its Battery Directive, while individual Member States are (with varying speed and success) defining regulatory frameworks for the smooth integration of BESS. in their electrical systems